Extreme gaseous outflows in radio-loud narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxies
Komossa, S., Xu, D.~W., & Wagner, A.~Y.
We present four radio-loud narrow-line Seyfert 1 (NLS1) galaxies with extreme emission-line shifts, indicating radial outflow velocities of the ionized gas of up to 2450 km s$^-1$, above the escape velocity of the host galaxies. The forbidden lines show strong broadening, up to 2270 km s$^-1$. An ionization stratification (higher line shift at higher ionization potential) implies that we see a large-scale outflow rather than single, localized jet-cloud interactions. Similarly, the paucity of zero-velocity [O III] \ensuremathłambda5007 emitting gas implies the absence of a second narrow-line region (NLR) component at rest, and therefore a large part of the high- ionization NLR is affected by the outflow. Given the radio loudness of these NLS1 galaxies, the observations are consistent with a pole on view onto their central engines, so that the effects of polar outflows are maximized. In addition, a very efficient driving mechanism is required to reach the high observed velocities. We explore implications from recent hydrodynamic simulations of the interaction between fast winds or jets with the large-scale NLR. Overall, the best agreement with observations (and especially the high outflow speeds of the [Ne V] emitting gas) can be reached if the NLS1 galaxies are relatively young sources with lifetimes not much exceeding 1 Myr. These systems represent sites of strong feedback at NLR scales at work, well below redshift one.