Panoramic Survey of Ly\ensuremathα Emitters at z = 3.1
Yamada, T., Nakamura, Y., Matsuda, Y., Hayashino, T., Yamauchi, R., Morimoto, N., Kousai, K., & Umemura, M.
We present the results of the extensive narrowband survey of Ly\ensuremathα emission-line objects at z = 3.1 in the 1.38 deg$^2$ area surrounding the high-density region of star- forming galaxies at z = 3.09 in the SSA22 field, as well as in the 1.04 deg$^2$ area of the three separated general blank fields. In total, of 2161 Ly\ensuremathα emitters, there are 1394 in the SSA22 fields and 767 in the general fields detected at the narrowband AB magnitude limit of 25.73, which corresponds to the line flux of \ensuremath≈1.8 × 10$^-17$ erg s$^-1$ cm$^-2$ or the luminosity of \ensuremath≈1.5 × 10$^42$ erg s$^-1$ at z = 3.1, above the observed equivalent-width threshold, \ensuremath≈190 ̊A. The average surface number density of the emitters at z = 3.1 in the general fields above the thresholds is 0.20 \ensuremath± 0.01 arcmin$^-2$. The SSA22 high-density region at z = 3.09, whose peak local density is six times that of the average, is found to be the most prominent outstanding structure in the whole surveyed area and is firmly identified as a robust ``protocluster.'' We also compared the overdensity of the 100 arcmin$^2$ and 700 arcmin$^2$ areas which contain the protocluster with the expected fluctuation of the dark matter as well as those of the model galaxies in cosmological simulations. We found that the peak height values of the overdensity are 8-10 and 3-4 times the expected standard deviations for the counts of Ly\ensuremathα emitters at z = 3.1 in the corresponding volume, respectively. We conclude that the structure at z = 3.09 in the SSA22 field is a very significant and rare density peak up to the scale of \ensuremath≈60 Mpc.