We present the results of a survey for emission-line objects, based on optical intermediate-band (\ensuremathłambda$_c$=5736 ̊A and \ensuremathΔ\ensuremathłambda=280 \Å) and broadband (B, V, R, and i') observations of the Subaru/XMM-Newton Deep Field with the 8.2 m Subaru telescope and the Subaru Prime Focus Camera (Suprime-Cam). All the data were obtained during the guaranteed time observations of the Suprime- Cam instrument. The intermediate-band image covered a sky area of 10.62′×12.40′\rs̊ebox-0.5ex~132 arcmin$^2$ in the Subaru/XMM-Newton Deep Field (Ouchi et al.). Using this image, we found 23 emission-line sources whose observed emission-line equivalent widths are greater than 250 \r̊. Their optical multicolor properties indicate that six emission-line sources are Ly\ensuremathα emitters at z\raib̊ox-0.5ex~3.7 (\ensuremathΔz\raiso̊x-0.5ex~0.22). They are either intense starburst galaxies or active galactic nuclei-like quasars at z\raisex̊-0.5ex~3.7. Two more emission-line sources may also be Ly\ensuremathα emitters at z\raiseb̊-0.5ex~3.7, although their multicolor properties are marginal. Among the remaining 15 emission-line objects, eight objects appear to be strong emission-line galaxies at lower redshift; e.g., [O II] \ensuremathłambda3727 emitters at z\raisebo-̊0.5ex~0.54, H\ensuremathβ at z\raisebox0̊.5ex~0.18, or [O III] \ensuremathłambda5007 emitters at z\raisebox.̊5ex~0.15. The remaining seven objects are unclassified because they are too faint to be detected in broadband images. We discuss the observational properties of these strong emission-line sources. In particular, our data allow us to estimate the star formation density at z\raisebox-5̊ex~3.7 for the first time. Based on data collected at Subaru Telescope, which is operated by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan.