研究成果・発表論文

On the Mass of Population III Stars

Nakamura, Fumitaka,   & Umemura, Masayuki


要旨
Performing one-dimensional hydrodynamical calculations coupled with nonequilibrium processes for hydrogen molecule formation, we pursue the thermal and dynamical evolution of filamentary primordial gas clouds and attempt to make an estimate on the mass of Population III stars. The cloud evolution is computed from the central proton density n$_c$åisebox-0.5ex~10$^2$-10$^4$ cm$^-3$ up to \i̊sebox-0.5ex~10$^13$ cm$^-3$. It is found that, almost independent of initial conditions, a filamentary cloud continues to collapse nearly isothermally owing to H$_2$ cooling until the cloud becomes optically thick against the H$_2$ lines (n$_c$\rs̊ebox-0.5ex~10$^10$-10$^11$ cm$^-3$). During the collapse the cloud structure separates into two parts, i.e., a denser spindle and a diffuse envelope. The spindle contracts quasi-statically, and thus the line mass of the spindle keeps a characteristic value determined solely by the temperature (\rae̊box-0.5ex~800 K), which is \raib̊ox-0.5ex~1×10$^3$ M$_solar$ pc$^-1$ during the contraction from n$_c$\raiso̊x-0.5ex~10$^5$ cm$^-3$ to 10$^13$ cm$^-3$. Applying a linear theory, we find that the spindle is unstable against fragmentation during the collapse. The wavelength of the fastest growing perturbation (\ensuremathłambda$_m$) lessens as the collapse proceeds. Consequently, successive fragmentation could occur. When the central density exceeds n$_c$\raisex̊-0.5ex~10$^10$-10$^11$ cm$^-3$, the successive fragmentation may cease, since the cloud becomes opaque against the H$_2$ lines and the collapse decelerates appreciably. Resultantly, the minimum value of \ensuremathłambda$_m$ is estimated to be \raiseb̊-0.5ex~2×10$^-3$ pc. The mass of the first star is then expected to be typically \raisebo-̊0.5ex~3 M$_solar$, which may grow up to \raisebox0̊.5ex~16 M$_solar$ by accreting the diffuse envelope. Thus, the first-generation stars are anticipated to be massive but not supermassive.




Image
Image
Image
Image
Image
Image
Image
Image
Image